The following diagram shows very well where the exact problem manifests itself.
White to move. It is a forced mate.
You can find the solution here.
With trial and error, you will see that all logical lines peter out pretty soon. That's the moment you need an idea. Without the right idea, you can't find the first move. No tactical patterns from the past will help you here, since the position is way too specific. Of course tactical patterns play a role, but what I say is that they are not going to bring you the right idea.
Logic is destructive by nature. It plays a role by the error part of trial and error. It works by means of elimination. Every creative idea that comes to mind is tested and discarded when it doesn't work.
Logic reasoning tells you to look for an invasion square. A square where your pieces can outnumber the opponent. Which can act as a bridge head. That is a common theme when attacking. When all obvious invasion squares are eliminated, you have to look for the less obvious.
f6 is such less obvious invasion square. Your queen and rook can work together to get the upper hand on f6. The only thing is that you will have to find a way to get rid of the only gard of f6 i.e. Rf8.
There are a few standard methods to get rid of the gard. Reasoning this way you will find the deflection move Bg8 soon, which happens to be the first move. Once this idea is found, the rest is pretty straight forward. Trial and error will reveal the right line soon.
If you will be able to solve this problem or not completely depends on if you find the right idea.
My hickup manifests when I have tried and rejected all obvious lines. In stead of going on, I start to repeat myself, maybe I missed something?
The reasoning concerning an invasion square you will find in every mating attack.
The reasoning concerning removal of the gard is evenly common.
The only thing is: why don't these common reasonings pop up when you need them?
Do you favour the term pattern in stead of reasoning? No problemo. The point we have to solve remains he same.
The answer to this will be the root to serious tactical improvement.